IELTS

NAATI CCL

PTE Speaking

QUESTION ESTIMATED NUMBER OF QUESTIONS SKILLS ASSESSED
Read Aloud 6-7 Reading +Speaking.
Repeat Sentence 10-12 Listening + Speaking
Describe Image 6-7 Speaking
Re-tell Lecture 3-4 Listening + Speaking
Answer Short Question 10-12 Listening + Speaking

1. Studying abroad is a very popular option for students who come from a wealthy family. Most people believe that overseas experience provides a deeper understanding of cultures and develops communication skills. While this may be true, not all of these new experiences are useful for finding a job. Employers tend to value interpersonal skills and industry knowledge more than cultural background.

2. Beauty contests, whether it's Miss Universe or Miss Teen International, are demeaning to women and out of sync with the times. Opponents say that they are nothing more than symbols of decline. Since Australians Jennifer Hawkins and Lauryn Eagle were crowned Miss Universe and Miss Teen International respectively, there has been a dramatic increase in interest in beauty pageants in this country.

3. Public demand for education has remained strong, reflecting the importance of education as a means of social progress. Aware of the social value of education to the world of the work, the government continues to innovate and update the education system in order to produce a qualified and competent work force.

4. But they did find something that had a much bigger impact on wildlife: habitat quality. The best predictor of wildlife abundance was not human activity, but factors like forest connectivity, nearby housing density, and the amount of adjacent agriculture. The results were published in the Journal of Applied Ecology.

5. Electronic discourse is one form of interactive electronic communication. In this study, we reserve the term for the two directional texts in which one person using a keyboard writes language that appears on the sender's monitor and is transmitted to the monitor of a recipient, who responds by keyboard

6. The preparation of abstract is an intellectual effort requiring general familiarity with the subject. To bring out the salient points of an author's argument calls for skill and experience. Consequently, a considerable amount of qualified manpower that could be used to advantage in other ways must be diverted to the task of facilitating access to information.

7. The best comparison is likely a magnetar, a young neutron star with a powerful magnetic field, the researchers said. Magnetars also produce bright X-ray flares. While magnetars are thought to be young stars, the two flaring objects in this study reside near elliptical galaxies, which contain older stars. So the objects are likely too old to be magnetars, the researchers said.

8. As we progress into the 21st century, communications are becoming faster and faster. Think of millions of different media images you are bombarded with every day. It is as important now to be able to read and make sense of these images, as it has been to be able to read ordinary text.

9. Globalization has affected what we eat in ways we are only beginning to understand. Modern food production no longer related to our biological needs but is in direct conflict with them. The relationship between diet and our fertility, our cancer, heart diseases and mental illness is becoming clear. Yet much of our food is nutritionally bankrupt.

10. Traditional divisions of domestic work are understood to persist because of the strong association of the home with humanity and paid work with masculinity - to challenge who does what in the home is arguably tantamount to challenge what it is to be a woman or a man.

11. researchers think that long-distance fliers such as the American golden-plover and the white-rumped sandpiper picked up the spores while lining their nests. Then when the birds arrive in new places they molt, leaving behind the feathers and their precious cargo-to start growing again at the other end of the world.

12. The brain is divided into its 'hemispheres' by a prominent groove. At the base of this lies nerve fibers which enable these two halves of the brain to communicate with each other. But the left hemisphere usually controls movement and sensation in the right side of the body, while the right hemisphere similarly controls the left side of the body

13. The department determines whether or not the candidate has passed the examination. In cases where an appearance for the final public oral examination would constitute a substantial financial hardship for the candidate, the director of graduate studies, may recommend to the dean of the Graduate School virtual, video-conferenced examination of the candidate

50. Meeting with mentors could be arranged for students who need additional help.

51. Students will not be given credits for assignments submitted after the due date.

52. Just wait a minute. I will be with you shortly.

53. The recent study has thrown out the validity of the argument.

54. You can get a student card at the reception.

55. She is an expert on the 18th-century French literature.

56. The elephant is the largest land living mammal.

57. Basketball was created in 1891 by an American physician for physical structure.

58. Resident's hall is closed prior to the academic building closing time in the semester.

59. It is important to take gender into account when discussing the figures.

60. A thorough bibliography is needed at the end of every assignment.

61. If you forgot your student number, you should contact Jenny Brise.

62. A preliminary bibliography is due the week before the spring break.

63. The college welcomes students from all over the world.

64. The books in the library can be borrowed up to three hours.

65. Physics is the subject of matters and energy.

66. You will find the economic section on the second floor of the library.

67. Would you prepare some PowerPoint slides with appropriate graphs?

68. I didn't understand the author's point of view on immigration.

69. The course registration is open early March for new students.

70. In Europe, the political pressure is similar regarding globalization.

71. The context includes both the land history and the human history.

72. There will be ample opportunities to ask questions about the presentation.

73. The original Olympic Games were celebrated as religious festivals

74. The pharmacy was closed when I went past this morning.

75. The current statistical evidence indicates further research.

76. She used to be everywhere, but today she is missing.

77. The trial of the court is to increase the interests of the issue and the jurisdiction itself.

78. A computer virus destroyed all my files.

79. There are lots of people competing for the places in computer courses.

80. Farmers do not always receive a price for agricultural goods.

81. The information on the internet becoming more reliable.

82. You will be less stressed if you are well prepared for the exam.

83. The school of arts and design has an open day on Thursday next week.

84. Journalism is the collection and publication or transmission of news.

85. The author expressed a theory that modern readers cannot accept.

86. All filed assignments should have a full list of bibliography.

87. Students must observe lab safety regulations at all time.

88. Anyone who has a problem with their accommodation should speak to the welfare officer.

89. The topic next week on colonial will be the nuclear disarmament.

90. All students and staff have the access to printer and computer.

91. We must put great care when analyzing data.

92. You should raise your concern with the head of school.

93. All students must participate in the exercise.

94. There will be a guest lecturer visiting the Chemistry department next month.

95. The first person in space was from the Soviet Union.

96. Unfortunately the two most interesting economic selection clash on my timetable.

97. The new hypothesis needs to be tested with a new controlled experiment.

98. Many species have yet to be described by biologists.

99. Establishing and retaining intellectual leadership clearly takes strong management skills.

100.Almost every representative of a new idea has to struggle and suffer similar difficulties.

101. The interaction of climate change and soil degradation will probably aggravate conditions.

102. Information is being given to readers in a format that looks familiar.

103. Very little of the work of today's knowledge firm is repetitive mechanical.

104. The portfolio is due to the internal review office no later than Tuesday.

105. Reserved collection books can be borrowed up to three hours.

106. The clear evidence between brain events and behavioural events is fascinating.

107. Critic literature theory tends to broaden more.

You have 25 seconds to study the image and prepare yourself. Once the given time (25 seconds) are over, you'll hear a short tone/beep. Start speaking immediately.Be loud and clear and follow your natural pace.Avoid any pauses even if you make mistakes or skip words.It is mainly about your fluency and pronunciation.

Tips:

Use a structure, this image provides information about ______(Title). The different attributes depicted are __________ (features in the image).
Talk about maximum, minimum
Talk about the trend-increasing, decreasing, stable
Just keep talking for the sake of fluency
Conclude by saying 'this image is informative

Scoring:

CONTENT The best responses deal with all parts of the image, contain logical and specific information and include possible developments, conclusions or implications
PRONUNCIATION The speech is easily understandable to most regular speakers of the language. The best responses contain vowels and consonants pronounced in a native-like way, and stress words and phrases properly.
ORAL FLUENCY The best responses are spoken at a constant and natural rate of speech with appropriate phrasing. Hesitations, repetitions and false starts will negatively affect your score.
[metaslider id="11712"]

Writing

1. Autism

Autism is a disorder characterized by impairments in communication, social interaction, and repetitive behaviours. Over the past 40 years, the measured prevalence of autism has multiplied roughly 10-fold. While progress has been made in understanding some of the factors associated with increased risk and rising prevalence, no one knows with certainty what causes autism or what caused autism prevalence to rise so precipitously. There is, however, a growing awareness among scholars that focusing solely on individual risk factors such as exposure toxicants, prenatal complications, or parental education is insufficient to explain why autism prevalence rates have increased so stunningly. Social and institutional processes likely play an important role. For example, changes in diagnostic criteria and an influx of resources dedicated to autism diagnosis may be critical to understanding why prevalence rates have risen. Increased awareness and social influence have been implicated in the rise of autism and a variety of comparable disorders, where social processes mimic the effects of contagion. Studies have examined the contribution of changes in diagnostic criteria and diagnostic substitution to rising autism prevalence rates, but the importance of institutional factors, resources for diagnosis, and greater awareness have not been systematically assessed. The sociological literature on health and inequality, however, provides substantial motivation for exploring how individual- and community-level effects operate to shape the likelihood of an autism diagnosis.

Autism is a disorder characterized by impairments in communication, social interaction, and repetitive behaviours though progress has been made in understanding some factors associated with increased risk and rising prevalence, no one knows with certainty what causes autism, however, scholars are focusing on personal risk factors and social and institutional processes likely play an important role as well.

2. Columbus

When Christopher Columbus arrived at Hispaniola during his first transatlantic voyage in the year A.D. 1492, the island had already been selected by Native Americans for about 5000 years. The occupants in Columbus's time were a group of Arawak Indians called Taino's who lived by farming, were organized into five chiefdoms, and numbered around half a million (the estimates range from 100,000 to 2,000,000). Columbus initially found them peaceful and friendly, until he and his Spaniards began mistreating them. Unfortunately for the Taino's, they had goldc. Hence the conquerors divided up the island and it Indian population among individual Spaniards who put the Indians to work as virtual slaves, accidentally infected them with Eurasian diseases, and murdered them. By the year 1519, 27 years after Columbus's arrival, that original population of half a million had been reduced to about 11,000, most of whom died that year of small pox to bring the population down to 3000 and those survivors gradually died out or became assimilated within the next few decades. That forced the Spaniards to look elsewhere for slave borders.

Christopher Columbus arrived at Hispaniola during his first transatlantic voyage in the year A.D. 1492 which had already been selected a group of Arawak Indians called Taino's, moreover, Taino's had gold, which the Spanish coveted but didn't want to go to the work of mining themselves, as a result, Spaniards put the Indians to work as virtual slaves, accidentally infected them with Eurasian diseases, and murdered them, reducing their population.

3. Comparative Advantage

With an abundance of low-priced labor relative to the United States, it is no surprise that China, India and other developing countries specialize in the production of labor-intensive products. For similar reasons, the United States will specialize in the production of goods that are human- and physical-capital intensive because of the relative abundance of a highly- educated labor force and technically sophisticated equipment in the United States. This division of global production should yield higher global output of both types of goods than would be the case if each country attempted to produce both of these goods itself. For example, the United States would produce more expensive labor-intensive goods because of its more expensive labor and the developing countries would produce more expensive human and physical capital-intensive goods because of their relative scarcity of these inputs. This logic implies that the United States is unlikely to be a significant global competitor in the production green technologies that are not relatively intensive in human and physical capital. Nevertheless, during the early stages of the development of a new technology, the United States has a comparative advantage in the production of the products enabled by this innovation. However, once these technologies become well-understood and production processes are designed that can make use of less-skilled labor, production will migrate to countries with less expensive labor.

With an abundance of low-priced labour, China, India and other developing nations specialize in the production of labour-intensive goods, but the United States will specialize in the production of human and physical-capital intensive goods because of highly-educated labour force and sophisticated equipment, and during the early stages of the development of a technology, US has an advantage, however, once these technologies become well-understood, production will transfer to countries with cheap labour. (71 words)

4. Compulsory voting

Compulsory voting is often suggested as a solution to the problem of declining turnout. But how are individuals and countries affected by ominvestigates the social, economic, and political consequences of compelling citizens to vote. There has been a lot of discussions about compulsory voting these days. In the Unit Kingdom, in particular, as voter turnout rates have declined, many commentators and politicians have begun advocating for mandatory electoral participation. Those in favor of compulsory voting often adduce the importance of participation among all segments of society. Citizens of democracies are forced to do many things in the interest of the public good, they maintain, including serving on juries and educating their children, and full participation serves the country as whole. Those opposed to compulsory voting often argue that, from a democratic theory perspective, the right to vote implicitly includes a right not to vote. Such a right of abstention, they argue, is more important than any societal good that might accompany high turnout. In fact, opponents of compulsory voting often contend that the country may be better off if those who are disinclined to vote are not pushed to participate in public affairs. Regardless of whether one of these sets of arguments is more persuasive than the other, compulsory voting is commonly used around the world. Several European democracies mandate voting, as do Australia and most of the countries in Latin America. By evaluating results from these countries, it is possible to assess the mechanics and effects of compulsory voting.

Compulsory voting is often suggested as a solution to the problem of declining turnout, and those in favor of compulsory voting often emphasize the importance of participation among all segments of society, but those opposed to compulsory voting often argue that, from a democratic theory perspective, the right to vote indirectly includes a right not to vote.

5. India and United States Or computer programing

Consider the current situation: Like their counterparts in the United States, engineers and technicians in India have the capacity to provide both computer programming and innovative new technologies. Indian programmers and high-tech engineers earn one-quarter of what their counterparts earn in the United States: India has an absolute advantage in bjoth. In other words it can produce a unit of programming for fewer dollars. Does that mean that the United States will lose not only programming jobs but also innovative technology too? Does that mean our standard of living will fall if United States and India engage in international trade? David Richado would have answered to the both questions – as we do today. While India have an absolute advantage in both activities, that fact is irrelevant in determining what India or the United State will produce. Indi has a comparative advantage in doing programming in part because such has a comparative advantage in technology innovation partly because it is relatively easy to obtain capital in this country to undertake such long-run projects. The result is that Indian programmers will do more and more of what U.S. programmers been doing in the past. In contrast, American firms will shift to more and more innovation. The United State will specialize in technology innovation; India will specialize in programming. The business have a comparative advantage. As a result the U.S economy will continue to concentrate on what are called the "most best activities".

Both India and the United States can engaged in technology innovation and programming, however, comparative advantage for India is greater for programming as it involves little physical capital and for the US, it is higher for technology innovation because of easy access to capital, which is required for long-term projects.

6. Cow and Grass

The co-evolutionary relationship between cows and grass is one of nature'sunderappreciated wonders; it also happens to be the key to understanding just about everything about modern meat. For the grasses, which have evolved to withstand the grazing of ruminants, the cow maintains and expands their habitat by preventing trees and shrubs from gaining a foothold and hogging the sunlight; the animal also spreads grass seed, plants it with his hooves, and then fertilizes it with his manure. In exchange for these services the grasses offer ruminants a plentiful and exclusive supply of lunch. For cows (like sheep, bison, and other ruminants) have evolved the special ability to convert grass— which single-stomached creatures like us can't digest—into high-quality protein. They can do this because they possess what is surely the most highly evolved digestive organ in nature: the rumen. About the size of a medicine ball, the organ is essentially a forty-five-gallon fermentation tank in which a resident population of bacteria dines on grass.

There is a co-evolutionary relationship between cows and grass as the cow maintains and expands their habitat by spreading grass seed, planting it with his hooves, and then fertilizing it with its manure and in return the grasses offer ruminants a plentiful and exclusive supply of lunch; moreover, cows have the ability to convert grass into high-quality protein using the rumen.

More information available online so library books are useless? Agree or disagree with statement?

These days, there is an ongoing debate among people about the relevance of availability of physical copies of books in libraries. The topic of the influence of internet and the potential impact of this trend on libraries is a very important consideration in this time and age. While it is possible to claim that recent advances in information technology have changed people's behaviour towards the use of libraries for studying, my view is that public libraries are needed. This means that I disagree with the idea that library books are useless. In this essay, I shall outline the rationale for my disagreement.

There are several reasons for why libraries are still important. One of them is that libraries provide a quiet learning environment. It can also be argued that distractions of everyday life an kill the joy of reading. It should also be taken into account that libraries make research easier by grouping books on a particular topic together. Those who argue against have a different view. Firstly, it is claimed that on the internet with just one click people can get all kind of information just at the blink of eye. Then, there are concerns about people have busy life schedule, so it is better for them to study at home using internet. However, latest scientific evidence shows that the internet is a vast pool of information, but if you don't know what you are looking for, it is nearly impossible to find relevant information online. While there are strong arguments on both sides of the case, personally opinion I believe that libraries are important and strongly recommend retaining them. (271 words)

Reading

Practice 1

a) He convinced Professor Fitzgerald of the University of Hull to set up a study into this matter.

b) Professor Fitzgerald and his team studied more than 47000 women.

c) The women were asked to fill in a questionnaire about their diet and about their suffering from acne.

d) No link was found between acne and traditionally suspect food such as chocolate and chips.

e) Doctor Byron has long held that there is a link between diet and acne.

e a b c d

Practice 2

a) Indian businessmen have used IT to create new business models that enable them to provide services in a more cost-effective way.

b) "This way, I will have access to the best scientists in the world without having to produce them myself", says Mr Maria.

c) This is not something that necessarily requires expensive technical research.

d) He suggests the country's computer services industry can simply outsource research to foreign universities if the capacity is not available locally.

e) Innovation in India is as much due to entrepreneurialism as it is to IT skills, says Arun Maria, chairman of Boston Consulting Group in India.

e a c d b

Practice 3

a) It offers several reasons to explain this underperformance, but the most widespread of these is poor literacy and language skills.

b) A recently published report shows that, in the United Kingdom, boys across all social classes consistently underachieve academically in both primary and secondary school.

c) Therefore, amongst its other recommendations, the report encourages fathers to get involved in reading with all of their children – but particularly with their sons.

d) On the other hand, it may be due to the fact that mothers are still largely responsible for reading with young children and the activity is thus seen as feminine.

e) It is unclear if this linguistic deficiency results from parents' tendency to spend less time reading with their young sons than with their daughters.

b a e d c

Practice 4

a) In particular, this increased output has been made possible by the use of new techniques like precise horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, or 'fracking' as it is often called.

b) At the moment, both groups are unwavering, and the debate on the future of oil and gas production remains unresolved.

c) The energy companies who use these new methods of production say that they have both economic and security benefits.

d) Over the past few years, US production of gas and oil has risen dramatically due to new technological developments in the sector.

e) Those who oppose horizontal drilling and fracking, however, are unconvinced by these arguments and claim that their continued use will result in catastrophic environmental consequences.

d a c e b

Practice 5

a) Esperanto had some early success, but the intervention of two world wars did not help its wider adoption. In the Second World War, some leaders thought it was a secret language that could be used by spies.

b) There's hope that the Internet will further assist the spread of the language. Wikipedia already has 215,000 pages in Esperanto, and there are several translation and social media apps on the market.

c) The artificial language of Esperanto was invented in 1887 by the Polish doctor Ludwik Zamenhof, who hoped that a language designed to be spoken by everyone, would contribute to world peace.

d) He made it as easy to learn as possible, with no irregular verbs, a vocabulary adapted from the Latin languages, and a simple grammar without gender or case.

e) However, Esperanto survived the twentieth century and spread by word of mouth and via books, newspaper articles, and four feature-length movies.

c d a e b

Practice 6

a) Also, prolonged periods in space trapped in a tiny capsule could have more serious psychological consequences for the crew. Having more room to move about, exercise and enjoy entertainment facilities would help to offset these problems.

b) Sending astronauts to the plane Mars poses far greater problems than sending them to the moon, not least because a journey to the red planet will take nine months to complete.

c) Scientists are working on a way to overcome this problem. They are devising a system which will employ rockets to slow the craft down sufficiently for it to land on the surface of Mars.

d) This means the spacecraft will have to be very large because it will need to carry vast amounts of fuel and food, not just to get to Mars but to return as well.

e) While giant spaceships might help to reduce astronauts' stress, they themselves create a problem. Their enormous weight makes it impossible to use the standard lunar landing procedure.

b d a e c

1. Read the given text and choose words from the box tofill the gaps.

fact     reality     greatly     may     flaunt     hardly      can     show 

Many parents greet their children’s teenage years with needless dread. While teens (1)______ assault us with heavy metal music, (2)______ outlandish clothes and spend all their time with friends, such behavior always adds up to full-scale revolt teenage rebellion according to psychologist Laurence Steinberg, has been (3)______ exaggerated. Sociologist Sanford Dornbusch agrees. “The idea teenagers inevitably rebel is a (4)_______ that has the potential for a great family ruin,” say Dornbusch.

1. may 2. flaunt 3.hardly 4. Reality

2. Read the given text and choose words from the box to fill the gaps.

alike      after     carefully      if      just as       that      until       slowly 

Can we see (1)_______ the earth is a globe? Yes, we can, when we watch a ship that sails out to sea. If we watch closely, we see that the ship begins to disappear. The bottom of the ship disappears first, and then the ship seems to sink lower and lower, (2)_______ we can only see the top of the ship, and then we see nothing at all. What is hiding the ship from us? It is the earth. Stick a pin most of the way into an orange, and (3)________ turn the orange away from you. You will see the pin disappear, (4)_______ a ship does on the earth.

1.that 2. until 3. slowly 4. just as

3. Read the given text and choose words from the box to fill the gaps.

core        hierarchy        entire        crux        rewind        all        start        postion

Educational planning should aim at meeting the educational needs of the (1)_______ population of all age groups. While the traditional structure of education as a three layer (2)______ from the primary stage to the university represents the (3)________, we should not overlook the periphery which is equally important. Under modern conditions workers need to (4)_______ or renew their enthusiasm, or strike out in a new direction or improve their skills as much as any university professor.

1. entire 2. hierarchy 3. core 4. Rewind

Question-66

Thomas Alva Edison was both a scientist and an inventor. Born in 1847, Edison would see _____(a) change take place in his lifetime. He was also to be responsible for making many those changes occur. When Edison was born, society still thought of electricity as a _______(b), a fad. By the time he died, entire cities were lit by electricity. Much of the _____(c) for that progress goes to Edison. In his lifetime, Edison ¬¬¬_______(d)1,093 inventions, earning him the nickname "The Wizard of Menlo Park." The most famous of his inventions was the incandescent light bulb. Besides the light bulb, Edison _______(e) the phonograph and the "kinetoscope," a small box for viewing moving films.

a) colossal/tremendous/exception/immersed

b) ambitious/novelty/innovating/crazy

c) awareness/fame/credit/works

d) patented/controlled/exclusive/rank

e) developed/refined/matured/establish

tremendous/novelty/credit/patented/developed

Question-67

Rudman looks at how a poor understanding of Maths has led historians to false conclusions about the Mathematical (a)____ of early societies. Rudman's final observation-that ancient Greece enjoys (b) _____ progress in the subject WHILE failing to teach it at school leads to a c)_______ punchline; Mathematics could be better learnt after we d)______ school.

a) Sophistication/simplicity/chic/elegance

b) Unrivalled/rivalled/reveal/revealed

c) radical/race/heavily/bigger

d) leave/leaving/join/going

sophistication/unrivalled/radical/leave

Question 68

A DOG may be man's best friend. But man is not always a dog's. Over the centuries, a)______ breeding has pulled at the canine body shape to produce what is often a grotesque distortion of the underlying wolf. Indeed some of mess distortions are when finding in people regarded as b)_____. Dog breeding does though offer a chance to those who would like to understand how body shape is controlled. The c)____ of pedigree pouches is well recorded. Their generation time is short and their d)_____ size reasonably large. So, there is plenty of material to work with. Moreover, breeds are by definition inbred and this simplifies genetic analysis. Those such as Elaine Ostrandcr, of America's National Human Genome Research Institute, who wish to Identify the genetic basis of the features of particular pedigrees thus have an ideal e)_____ animal.

  a) Selective/imaginary/objective/motive/subjective

b) Pathologies/anthropologies/neurology/psychology

c) Ancestry/ancestor/concede/receptor

d) Litter/mass/litre/toilet

e) Experimental/incidental/optimal smart

Selective/pathologies/ancestry/litter/experimental

Question-69

As the economic (a)______ deepened in the early 30s, and as farmers had less and less money to spend in their town, banks began to fall at (b)______ rates. During the 20s, there was an average of 70 banks failing each year nationally. After the crash, during the first 10 months of 1930, 744 banks failed - 10 times as many. ln all, 9,000 banks failed during the decade of the it's estimated that 4,000 banks (c)_______ during the one year of 1933. By 1933, depositors saw $140 billion through bank failures.

  a) structure, depression, booming, growth

b) Increased, alarming, moderately, increasingly

c) progressed, failed, crippled. Bankrupt

depression/alarming/failed/disappear

Question-70

The ocean floor is home to many unique communities of plants and animals. Most of these marine ecosystems are near the water surface, such as the Great Barrier Reef, 12,000-km-long coral (a)_______ off the northeaster coast of Australia. Coral reefs, like nearly all-complex living communities, depend on solar energy for growth (photosynthesis). The sun's energy, however, penetrates at most only about 300 m below the surface of the water. The relatively shallow penetration of solar energy and the sinking of cold, subpolar water combine to make most of the deep ocean floor a (b)______ environment with few life forms. In 1977, scientists discovered hot spring at a depth of 2.5 km, on the Galapagos Rift (spreading ridge) off the coast of Ecuador. This exciting discovery was not really a (c)_____. Since the early 1970s, scientists had predicted that hot springs (geothermal vents) should be found at the active spreading centres along the mid-oceanic ridges, where magma, at temperatures over 1,000 C, presumably was being erupted to form a new oceanic crust. More exciting, because it was totally (d)_______ was the discovery of abundant and unusual sea life-giant tube worms, huge clams, and mussels - that e)_______ around the hot springs.

a) structure, formation, composition, forests

b) dark. deeper, frigid, shallow

c) pleasure, shocked, amazement, surprise

d) eureka, expectation, new, unexpected

e) thrived, placed, bloom, boom

formation/frigid/surprise/unexpected/thrived

Question-26

If you're choosing to use the random pairing or are a)___ the college choose your roommate for you, you‘ll probably have to fill out some kind of profile or questionnaire. These usually include things like: what time do you usually go to bed, where do you prefer to study, do you keep your space clean or are you more messy, etc. When you're answering these questions, be as honest as possible. lf there's something you're dead set against (e.g., a roommate who smokes) you can mark that and you will not be b)__ with someone who fits that criteria. Choosing a roommate can be kind of c)__ . In some cases, it can feel like as big of a decision as actually choosing which school to attend. But don‘t worry, if you get to campus and live with your roommate for a few weeks and find out that your lifestyles are just too different, you can always move. I d)__ roommates my first semester of college, and after l moved my college experience was much more positive. In fact, I lived with different people every year of college and it all worked out. So, have fun with it! Be open to meeting new people and trying new things. Sometimes the best roommates are the ones that are completely different than you because they cannot only e)__ you to new cultural experiences, but they can also expand your ways of thinking- and isn't that what college is all about?

a) letting/making/bringing/doing

b) paired/allied/associated/linking

c) challenge/hassle/stressful/accentuation

d) changed/switched/swapped/exchanging

e) integrate/introduce/learn/connected

Letting/paired/stressful/swapped/introduce

Question 27

The National Portrait Gallery's Conservation Department performs one of the Gallery's a)_____ functions, the long-term preservation of all Collection items, to make them Mt now and in future. The Collection c)_______ from the 8th century to the present day, and consists of portraits in a variety of media, so the Gallery employs Conservators with d)______ in a range of disciplines, including Framing, Painting, Paper, Sculpture and Photography.

a) automatic/core/real/nucleus

c) dates/dating/date/dated

d) skilful/facility/aptness/expertise

automatic/accessible/dates/expertise

Question-28

No two siblings are the same, not even a)_____ twins. Parents often b)______ about why their children are so different from one another, They'll say, I c)______them up all the same. They forget that what determine our behaviour isn't what happens to us but how we d)______what happens to us, and no two people ever see anything in exactly the same way.

a) Identical/identity/same/salient

b) Confuse/puzzle/worried/wary

c) Raised/reared/brought/took

d) Illustrate/interpret/indicate/insulate

Identical/puzzle/brought/interpret

Question-29

Symbiosis is a biological a)_____ in which two species live in b)_____ proximity to each other and interact regularly in such a way as to benefit one or both of the c)_____ . When both partners benefit, this variety of symbiosis is known as mutualism.

a)relationship/partner/immune/studies

b) close/near/far/closer

c) organism/parent/offspring/study

Relationship/close/organism

Question-30

A crime is generally a)_____ act that results in harm, physical or otherwise, toward one or more people, in a manner prohibited by law. The determination of which acts are to be b)_____ criminal has varied historically, and continues to do so among cultures and nations. When a crime is c)_______, a process of discovery, trial by judge or jury, conviction, and punishment occurs. Just as what is considered criminal varies between d)________, so does the punishment, but elements of restitution and deterrence are common.

a)careful/deliberate/willing/plan

b) considered/consideration/took/takes

c) achieved/perpetrate/execute/committed

Deliberate/considered/committed/jurisdictions